An analysis of the influences on the differences in the physical and social development of boys and

Published online Jan 5. Received Oct 24; Accepted Dec

An analysis of the influences on the differences in the physical and social development of boys and

In this article we present a theoretical analysis of the nature and development of children's achievement task values. Our approach builds on traditional expectancy-value theory and also on a model of achievement choice developed by Eccles and her colleagues. The development of gender differences in physical activity was reviewed us- ing the categories of motor performance, motor activity, physical activity, In a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of the development of gender differences in motor performance, Thomas and French () reported that 12 Social influences that . Slow Death and Overdoses Many people wonder if the use of alcohol and drugs is a way of committing suicide by "slow death." Most persons who abuse these substances are taking them chiefly as a kind of self-medication to reduce their stress.

Rochester Institute of Technology This review discusses how two theories--evolutionary psychology and social structural theory--apply to mate preferences, jealousy, and aggression. It compares explanations from both theories for each sex difference.

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Evolutionary psychology maintains that sex differences develop biologically as people adapt to changes in the environment. The main focus in evolutionary psychology is reproduction of future generations.

Social structural theory maintains that sex differences result from changes in society and social roles occupied by men and women. Social structural theory also draws upon cultural explanations. This paper compares the perspectives of evolutionary psychology and social structural theory on sex differences in jealousy, mate preferences, and aggression.

These two theories shed somewhat different lights on the origins of sex differences between men and women. Both theories discuss sex differences in mate preferences, jealousy, and aggression.

Explanations from the two theories are compared and contrasted. Explanations for Sex Differences Evolutionary psychologists have developed a theory to explain the origins of differences between men and women.

From the evolutionary perspective, human sex differences reflect the pressure of differing physical and social environments between females and males in primeval times. It is believed that each sex faced different pressures and that the differing reproductive status was the key feature in life at that time.

This resulted in sex-specific evolved mechanisms that humans carry with them--these are the causes of sex-differentiated behavior. The two sexes developed different strategies to ensure their survival and reproductive success. This explains why men and women differ psychologically: Evolutionary psychologists explain sex differences as based on differing parental investment.

Because women invest greatly in reproduction of offspring, they have developed traits that help improve the chances that each offspring will survive. Evolutionary psychologists view sex-evolved dispositions as psychological tendencies that have been built in genetically. This explains the difference in each sex's perspective on reproduction.

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The social structural theory states that the critical cause of sex differences is social structure. The differences between genders are not based psychologically but are influenced socially.

It is believed that situations faced by each sex are variable in societies and cultures and historical periods and that there are changes are in responses to technology, ecology, and social organization. Because men are bigger and stronger, they are given more attention and respect in our society.

Physical sex differences influence the roles held by men and women, because one sex will accomplish certain activities better than the other sex. Each performance by one sex determines its placement in the social structure.

With physical differences, each sex is believed to develop traits according to placement in the social structure. Men who have roles of great power and good standing in society show more dominant behavior, whereas women's roles are normally classified with lesser power and status and will produce more subordinate behavior.

This theory emphasizes that mate selection by women is not only focused on reproduction of childen but also on power and social status. Mate selection is women's way to move up the social ladder.

An analysis of the influences on the differences in the physical and social development of boys and

Mate Preferences Several considerations influences a person's selection of a suitable mate. Evolutionary psychology indicates that characteristics that people seek in mates depend on their sex and whether it is a short-term or a long-term mating.

Women are limited in the number of children they can have during their lifetime. Men have no restriction when it comes to reproduction.

An analysis of the influences on the differences in the physical and social development of boys and

Both men and women compete for their choice of mate. Women will seek a mate who has resources to support their parental efforts, whereas men will seek a mate for reasons different from wanting to be a parent.

A man has two possibilities for multiplying copies of his genes: He can either aim for quantity or quality of offsprings. With quantity, a man can impregnate as many women as possible without staying around to help raise any of the children. With quality, a man can stay with one female partner and have fewer children, but he will be present during their upbringing VanLeuwen, Women have a limit on how many children they can have and a time limit on when they can bear children.

Because of these limits, women are strongly motivated to ensure that the children they have will have the physical and psychological traits necessary to survive and to be able to reproduce successfully Looy, Physical appearances play a big part in mate selection.

Women prefer men with more symmetrical features; clear, unblemished skin; and white sclera of the eye, because these features indicate good health, which also means "good" genes. Women also prefer that men have masculine features, such as strong jaw, facial hair, broader shoulders, narrower hips, and a muscular build, because these indicate sufficient testosterone for fertility.outcomes.

Social and emotional difficulties continue over time and are highly resistant to change. It is not surprising that a strong relationship exists between . Social and Emotional Learning Social and Emotional Learning is about helping students develop a range of skills they need for school and life.

-Important in understanding social influences in gender -Emphasizes that children's and adolescent's gender development is influenced by their observation and imitations of others' gender behavior, as well as by the rewards and punishments they experience for gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior.

health outcomes, including many of the outcomes for which there are cross-national health differences, such as noncommunicable diseases, associated risk .

In this article we present a theoretical analysis of the nature and development of children's achievement task values.

Our approach builds on traditional expectancy-value theory and also on a model of achievement choice developed by Eccles and her colleagues. A precise scientific exploration of the differences between boys and girls that breaks down damaging gender stereotypes and offers practical guidance for parents and educators.

Child development - Wikipedia