An analysis of the process of negotiation

Identification of your and their Interests Positions: Goals, Most Desired Outcomes, and Least Acceptable Agreements Best Alternatives to a Negotiated Agreement Concessions Know the relationship you want to build Plan to build trust Develop Probes to discover "Don't knows" and test Assumptions Stage 2 — Information Exchange The Information Exchange Stage occurs when you begin to engage the other side, share information and explore options that address interests — what you each need, as opposed to positions — what you each ask for later in the Bargaining Stage. We will discuss the difference between interests and positions and how critical they are to successful negotiations in depth later, but here is a brief example:

An analysis of the process of negotiation

Mediation is a form of negotiation with a third-party catalyst who helps the conflicting parties negotiate when they cannot do so by themselves Negotiation can be contrasted with arbitrationwhere the decision lies with the third party, which the conflicting parties are committed to accept.

Negotiation theorists generally distinguish between two types of negotiation [6] The difference in the usage of the two type depends on the mindset of the negotiator but also on the situation: Zero-sum games Distributive negotiation is also sometimes called positional or hard-bargaining negotiation and attempts to distribute a "fixed pie" of benefits.

Distributive negotiation operates under zero-sum conditions and implies that any gain one party makes is at the expense of the other and vice versa.

Distributive negotiation examples include haggling prices on an open market, including the negotiation of the price of a car or a home. In a distributive negotiation, each side often adopts an extreme or fixed position, knowing it will not be accepted—and then seeks to cede as little as possible before reaching a deal.

Distributive bargainers conceive of negotiation as a process of distributing a fixed amount of An analysis of the process of negotiation. A distributive negotiation often involves people who have never had a previous interactive relationship, nor are they likely to do so again in the near future, although all negotiations usually have a distributive element.

In the distributive approach each negotiator fights for the largest possible piece of the pie, so parties tend to regard each other more as an adversary than a partner and to take a harder line. Non-zero-sum game and Win-win game Integrative negotiation is also called interest-based, merit-based, or principled negotiation.

It is a set of techniques that attempts to improve the quality and likelihood of negotiated agreement by taking advantage of the fact that different parties often value various outcomes differently.

An analysis of the process of negotiation

While distributive negotiation assumes there is a fixed amount of value a "fixed pie" to be divided between the parties, integrative negotiation attempts to create value in the course of the negotiation "expand the pie" by either "compensating" loss of one item with gains from another "trade-offs" or logrollingor by constructing or reframing the issues of the conflict in such a way that both parties benefit "win-win" negotiation [11].

However, even integrative negotiation is likely to have some distributive elements, especially when the different parties both value different items to the same degree or when details are left to be allocated at the end of the negotiation.

While concession is mandatory for negotiations, research shows that people who concede more quickly, are less likely to explore all integrative and mutually beneficial solutions. Therefore, early conceding reduces the chance of an integrative negotiation.

It can also involve creative problem-solving that aims to achieve mutual gains. It sees a good agreement as not one with maximum individual gain, but one that provides optimum gain for all parties. Gains in this scenario are not at the expense of the Other, but with it.

Each seeks to accord the Other enough benefit that it will hold to the agreement that gives the first party an agreeable outcome, and vice versa. Productive negotiation focuses on the underlying interests of the parties rather than their starting positions, approaches negotiation as a shared problem-solving rather than a personalized battle, and insists upon adherence to objective, principled criteria as the basis for agreement.

Rather than conceding, each side can appreciate that the other has emotions and motivations of their own and use this to their advantage in discussing the issue. In fact, perspective-taking can help move parties toward a more integrative solution.

Put yourself in their shoes — People tend to search for information that confirms his or her own beliefs and often ignore information that contradicts prior beliefs.

Negotiation theory - Wikipedia

One should be open to other views and attempt to approach an issue from the perspective of the other. Each individual should openly and honestly share his or her perceptions without assigning blame or judgement to the other.

Find opportunities to act inconsistently with his or her views — It is possible that the other party has prior perceptions and expectations about the other side.

The other side can act in a way that directly contradicts those preconceptions, which can effectively send a message that the party is interested in an integrative negotiation.

Active listening — Listening is more than just hearing what the other side is saying. Active listening involves paying close attention to what is being said verbally and nonverbally.

An analysis of the process of negotiation

It involves periodically seeking further clarification from the person. By asking the person exactly what they mean, they may realize you are not simply walking through a routine, but rather take them seriously.

Speak for a purpose — Too much information can be as harmful as too little. Before stating an important point, determine exactly what you wish you communicate to the other party.

Determine the exact purpose that this shared information will serve.Common Elements in the Analysis of the Negotiation Process I.

William Zartman His recent edited works include the second edition of The 50% Solution (New Haven: Yale University Press, ) and Positive Sum: Improving North‐South Negotiations (New Brunswick: Transaction, ). In the course, you’ll learn about and practice the four steps to a successful negotiation: (1) Prepare: Plan Your Negotiation Strategy (2) Negotiate: Use Key Tactics for Success (3) Close: Create a Contract (4) Perform and Evaluate: The End Game To successfully complete this course and improve your ability to negotiate, you’ll need to do the following: (1) Watch the short videos (ranging from 5 to 20 minutes).

Negotiation is an open process for two parties to find an acceptable solution to a complicated conflict. There are five steps to the negotiation process. Thus, negotiation is a process of combining divergent positions into a joint agreement under a decision rule of unanimity.

5 Stages of Negotiation Process | Watershed Associates

It is aimed to resolve points of difference, to gain advantage for an individual or collective, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. Negotiation is a method by which people settle differences. It is a process by which compromise or agreement is reached while avoiding argument and dispute.

In any disagreement, individuals understandably aim to achieve the best possible outcome for their position (or perhaps an organisation they.

Essence of the 5 steps of negotiation process is the actual give and take in trying to hash out an agreement, a proper bargain suitable for all parties. Essence of the 5 steps of negotiation process is the actual give and take in trying to hash out an agreement, a proper bargain suitable for all parties.

Negotiation - Wikipedia