However, Chinese business culture is unlike it is anywhere else in the world and to thrive in this market, foreign companies need to have an understanding of the major practical challenges they will have to face if they want to succeed here. With over a decade of assisting foreign companies, especially small and medium size enterprises SMEsmarket and sell their products, technologies, and services in China, US-Pacific Rim International, Inc.
Introduction A general goal of much social science research is improved health, and more specifically to empower people, from policy to local levels, with knowledge to make positive health changes and choices. Changes can result from knowledge, which as a science is based on sound research.
This research also involves ethical dimensions. As members of a professional community, academics strive to meet the needs of government funders, the academy, and greater society.
Ethical conduct is a component of any human interaction, and the need for it increases when a relationship occurs across cultures, where conceptions of ethics can differ greatly SINGER, Psychoeducational research should reflect the needs and benefits of participants, as well as academic and applied interests.
However, a dialectical opposition in worldview and belief can often exist between academics and cross-cultural research participants. In this paper, we question some of the "taken-for-granted" conceptions and consider an alternative to the existence and practices of academics.
Examples from several community based research projects are presented as illustrations. Rethinking the Taken-for-Granted Conceptions in Research 2. Poor people, gays and lesbians, youth, and members of other marginalized groups in western society have also been identified as lacking power in academic environments.
Creating a partnership with research participants as both individuals and as a group may reduce the risk of unethical or unintentionally insensitive action or treatment.
Additionally, research projects that are carried out using participatory methodologies may be more effective both in terms of ethical conduct and accurate research results.
According to HARTaction research is marked by collaborative and agreed-upon decision-making processes that enable communities to hold power over the research.
However, in terms of research ethics, the community may not always have the information or knowledge to make sound ethical decisions, which the academic researcher may be ethically bound to consider. For example, in one action research project, the co-researchers from the community formulated questions for a survey that the academic researcher questioned ethically: I tried to revise or eliminate some of the more intrusive questions, but if the group felt the issue was important, I had no authority to delete items from the questionnaires I felt ethically justified in helping them to tabulate the answers and write the report.
However, the source of consent for participants from cultural or ethnic groups must be more clearly and operationally defined than from more mainstream groups, such as undergraduate university class samples, and this must be done on a case-by-case basis. For example, ethics, in terms of research with Aboriginal groups, requires a special definition, according to PIQUEMAL ; ethics, in such a context, is a fluid concept that requires constant re-examination and redefinition, within informed consent viewed and implemented as an ongoing process.
Integral to a group's control over research is authority over a project's agenda its purpose and methodologybudget, and participant selection PIQUEMAL, Instead, the relationship should be viewed as a partnership agreement, but with major decisions ideally made by the participants' community.
In some cases, tribal councils are distanced and mistrusted by part of the community itself. Cross-cultural research design comes from an understanding of the culture within which the researcher will be working. Education and training in cross-cultural research is very important for academic researchers, which includes learning about the culture of the participants, their history, language, customs, expectations, and aspirations.
According to PARLEE"knowledge would be dramatically changed if it were consistently developed through interaction with its 'subjects' and its intended audiences instead of being developed with professional colleagues in mind and 'given away'" p. Problems can be assuaged in this way because sharing data ownership ensures an ongoing process of informed consent by participants.
Further, if non-academics read a journal article, the implications for practice or change may not be clear to them. A "translation" from research context to the societal setting should be made in the form of community newsletter or presentation.
However, if policy-makers, service providers, research participants, or the general public do read an article containing community data, understand its implications for change, and actually implement practice or policy change on the basis of the research, this might occur without the researcher's knowledge.
This can create a lack of feedback to the researchers that reduces possibility for improving and refining effective and ethical research practice.
Establishing and maintaining on-going and reciprocal research partnerships may help alleviate such dissemination difficulties.Top challenges when doing business with India (multiple choice & optional) and vast cultural differences can be seen between North and South India.
Be aware of the cultural diversity and be cautious about generalisations.
The great Cambridge economist Joan Robinson once observed: “Whatever you can rightly say about India, the opposite is. barrier in doing business in the world market, cultural differences ranked first in all eight items including "law, price competition, information, language, delivery, foreign .
approaches to each and every cultural context they operate in. Therefore, while the concepts discussed in this note will apply to different aspects of cross-border activities, the primary focus is on multinational business firms.
Section 1 of this note discusses cultural . Doing Business and Working in India (As an American - Cross-Cultural Differences) 1. Doing Business and Working In India A Foreigner’s Perspective With: Jennifer Kumar Photo credit: photo_gratis @ flickr ©, Jennifer Kumar, Owner and Program Director timberdesignmag.com -- [email protected] Power is a central aspect to consider in cross-cultural research relationships.
Research with cross-cultural participants, such as Aboriginal Canadians for example, has often reflected a power imbalance that is rooted in colonialism (PIQUEMAL, ).
Article by: Gayle Cotton Special to EO. Gayle is president of Circles Of Excellence for Corporate Training & Executive Coaching. She is an internationally recognized authority on Cultural Science and author of the book, "5 Keys To Successful Cross-Cultural Business Communications," now available as a .