Tense is a property of verbs to indicate when an action happened, happens, or will happen. The usual tenses are past, present, and future. Some argue that, because we don't have a separate inflection for the future — we form it with an auxiliary verb — English doesn't really have a future tense. Seems a niggling distinction to me, but what do I know?
Rees and Chris Caple The Cadw guidebook for Dinefwr and Dryslwyn castles Even at first glimpse, it is clear that the long ridge occupied by Dinefwr and the rocky knoll on which Dryslwyn sits perched are positions of the most extraordinary defensive strength.
But suggestions that prehistoric fortifications possibly underlie the medieval castles are not borne out by any evidence. This said, the finds of Roman material within the locality of Dinefwr, and references in the Book of St Teilo and the Book of Llandaff indicate that nearby Llandeilo Fawr was a place of no little significance well before the arrival of the Normans.
The Welsh lawbooks of the medieval period, the earliest of which is a text of the 13th century, accorded to Dinefwr a special status as the principal court of the kingdom of Deheubarth.
Indeed, the lawbooks which emanate from the kingdom of Deheubarth accord Dinefwr parity with Aberffraw, the chief court of the kingdom of Gwynedd. The earliest reference to the castle at Dinefwr in historical sources belongs to the period of Rhys ap Gruffydd, the Lord Rhys.
One of the greatest Welsh leaders of the 12th century, Rhys ap Gruffydd was able to withstand the power of the Anglo-Norman lords of the March, supported on occasion by the intervention of King Henry II of England, and recreate the kingdom.
Gradually over a period of more than 20 years Rhys re-established a single power over the lands of Ystrad Tywi, Ceredigion, and parts of Dyfed, and thereby brought a large part of the ancient kingdom under his control. He captured the castle at Cardigan and probably rebuilt the castles of LlandoveryRhayader, and Nevern.
His remarkable achievement in reversing the fortune of his kingship cannot be underestimated. By Deheubarth had been reconstituted and was the premier Welsh kingdom, albeit under the overlordship of the English king. Alas we cannot be sure what the castle of the Lord Rhys at Dinefwr looked like.
Fundamentally, however, it was perhaps of a similar form to that which survives today. There may have been an inner ringwork and an outer ward with two gates, and either a wooden or, more probably, a masonry defensive wall.
Following the death of Rhys ap Gruffydd inhis sons contested the succession to the kingdom of Deheubarth. Rhys had probably intended that his eldest legitimate son, Gruffydd ap Rhys d. A vigorous struggle ensued, and castles were captured and recaptured in a period of prolonged conflict between the brothers, and - after the death of Gruffydd - his sons Rhys Ieuanc ap Gruffydd and Owain ap Gruffydd.
The main beneficiaries of this tragic conflict within Deheubarth were outsiders. The English king, Anglo-Norman lords of the March, and native Welsh neighbours, all took advantage until once again the days of independence seemed to be numbered. Finally, it was by the power of the prince of Gwynedd, Llywelyn ab Iorwerththat a settlement was made and in He induced the claimants to accept a tripartite division of Deheubarth.
They were all now rulers by the grace of Llywelyn, diminished in stature and relegated to a lesser role in history. Deheubarth was never to recover the status it had enjoyed under the Lord Rhys. Despite this, it was in these decades that Dinefwr achieved its mighty masonry construction before being eventually lost to King Edward I.
There is nothing in the surviving archaeological evidence to argue for or against there having been a fortification on the site before the time of the Lord Rhys, and the present defensive layout was probably first adopted at this time.Project Gutenberg Australia a treasure-trove of literature treasure found hidden with no evidence of ownership.
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