In the words of Rejaul Karim Laskara scholar of India's foreign policy and ideologue of the Congress party which was the ruling party of India for the most part of the Cold War years, the Non-Aligned movement was the "formula" devised by Nehru and other leaders of the newly independent countries of the third world to "guard" their independence "in face of complex international situation demanding allegiance to either of the two warring superpowers". Nonalignment was a consistent feature of Indian foreign policy by the late s and enjoyed strong, almost unquestioning support among the Indian elite.
Their actions were known as 'The Initiative of Five'. The Non-Aligned Movement as an organization was founded on the Brijuni Non alignment of india in Yugoslavia inand was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni on 19 July One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but with the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another".
According to Rejaul Karim Laskaran ideologue of the Congress party which ruled India for most part of the Cold War years, the Non-Aligned Movement arose from the desire of Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders of the newly independent countries of the third world to guard their independence "in face of complex international situation demanding allegiance to either two warring superpowers".
The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. Krishna Menon inat the Non alignment of india Nations. The term "non-alignment" was established in at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a speech in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called Panchsheel five restraints ; these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement.
The five principles were: Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty. Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs.
Equality and mutual benefit. At the Lusaka Conference in Septemberthe member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes and the abstention from the big power military alliances and pacts. Another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries.
India and Pakistan, Iran and Iraq.
The movement fractured from its own internal contradictions when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in Although the Soviet allies supported the invasion, other members of the movement particularly predominantly Muslim states condemned it.
After the breakup of Yugoslaviaa founding member, its membership was suspended  in at the regular Ministerial Meeting of the Movement, held in New York during the regular yearly session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. InMalta and Cyprus ceased to be members and joined the European Union.
Belarus is the only member of the Movement in Europe. Azerbaijan and Fiji are the most recent entrants, joining in The applications of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Costa Rica were rejected in andrespectively.
A major question has been whether many of its foundational ideologies, principally national independence, territorial integrity, and the struggle against colonialism and imperialism, can be applied to contemporary issues.
The movement has emphasised its principles of multilateralism, equality, and mutual non-aggression in attempting to become a stronger voice for the global South, and an instrument that can be utilised to promote the needs of member nations at the international level and strengthen their political leverage when negotiating with developed nations.
In its efforts to advance Southern interests, the movement has stressed the importance of cooperation and unity amongst member states,  but as in the past, cohesion remains a problem since the size of the organisation and the divergence of agendas and allegiances present the ongoing potential for fragmentation.
It opposes foreign occupation, interference in internal affairs and aggressive unilateral measures, but it has also shifted to focus on the socio-economic challenges facing member states, especially the inequalities manifested by globalization and the implications of neo-liberal policies.
The Non-Aligned Movement has identified economic underdevelopmentpoverty, and social injustices as growing threats to peace and security. According to Mehr News Agencyrepresentatives from over countries were scheduled to attend. The chairmanship rotates between countries and changes at every summit of heads of state or government to the country organizing the summit.
The current requirements are that the candidate country has displayed practices in accordance with the ten "Bandung principles" of Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations. Recognition of the movements for national independence.
Recognition of the equality of all races and of the equality of all nations, large and small.
Abstention from intervention or interference in the internal affairs of another country. Respect for the right of each nation to defend itself singly or collectively, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations.
Refraining from acts or threats of aggression or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country. Settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations.
Promotion of mutual interests and co-operation. Respect for justice and international obligations. Consisting of many governments with vastly different ideologies, the Non-Aligned Movement is unified by its declared commitment to world peace and security.
At the seventh summit held in New Delhi in Marchthe movement described itself as "history's biggest peace movement". NAM's commitment to peace pre-dates its formal institutionalisation in The Brioni meeting between heads of governments of India, Egypt and Yugoslavia in recognized that there exists a vital link between struggle for peace and endeavours for disarmament.
The Non-Aligned Movement espouses policies and practices of cooperation, especially those that are multilateral and provide mutual benefit to all those involved.India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries that wanted into the Non-Aligned Movement.
India's policy was neither negative nor positive.
In the twenty-first century, India continues to practice the policy of non-alignment which allows it. Throughout the past several decades, it would have been heresy to suggest that India’s foreign policy was based on anything other than nonalignment.
Non-alignment is an obsolete posture, and India has much work to do in mending regional relations, especially with China and Pakistan, as well as with the West. The Non-Aligned Movement was founded and held its first conference (the Belgrade Conference) in under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Kwame Nkrumah of .
India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries that wanted into the Non-Aligned timberdesignmag.com's policy was neither negative nor positive. The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
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