Offensive[ edit ] Overload: A player positions themselves directly under the goal, next to the keeper. The aim is to keep this position and to receive a quick pass and then have a short, direct shot at the goal or pass to another player who takes the opportunity to break through the defence.
The PST program used by Fournier et al. The purpose of the study it to develop a PST program for an elite male gymnast. The PST program will be implemented to optimise performance for the forthcoming Commonwealth games in Australia with specific consideration to emotions and self-confidence.
Review of Literature Self Confidence Self-confidence may be the most critical self-perception in sport psychology Gill, Self-confidence is defined as a global and stable characteristic which, in reality bares little use within the sports domain Gill, The athlete must be confident they can perform well when placed in their competitive environment, i.
Tiger Woods would be confident of making the final putt on the 18th green at Augusta in the Golf Masters, however, may not feel too confident taking the final penalty kick in the World Cup final.
Self-efficacy is a situation form of self-confidence or the belief that one is confident and can perform within a specific situation Gill, Gill suggests that the most consistent difference between elite and less successful performance is that elite athlete possess greater levels of self-efficacy.
Self-efficacy is very important in a sport like gymnastics, the performer must believe they can perform well at the required time Gill, Efficacy can fluctuate between apparatus, therefore within gymnastics it is important to increase self-efficacy for each piece of apparatus. Initially low levels of self-efficacy may transfer form piece to piece and negatively influence the whole performance.
Therefore, initially high levels of efficacy will improve performance and should be maintained throughout the duration of the competition.
As with many psychological components rarely does a single component work in isolation. Decreases in self-efficacy could alter important performance variables such as arousal, stress and anxiety which may have a snowballing effect on performance. Emotions Emotion in sport is much more than a reactive expression to victory or defeat.
Emotion is not a single construct, it can be sub-divided into emotional components Horn, Researchers have demonstrated that a wide range of emotions are associated by changes in performance Jones, Many athletes report that heightening levels of arousal facilitates their performance Gould, Eklund and Jackson, It is reported to increase anaerobic power Jones, However, emotions can have a negative effect on some motor skills through increasing muscular tension which ultimately effect co-ordination Jones,both detrimental to a sport like gymnastics.
Arousal Arousal is referred to as a unitary construct that embraces both the psychological and physiological energetic systems Horn, Arousal can be measured using self-report questionnaires such as the Thayer Activation-Deactivation Check-list Horn, Arousal can also be measured using simple physiological tests; heart-rate, blood pressurerespiration rate and biochemical indicants such as; epinephrine or adrenaline.
Anxiety Martens in Horn advocates levels of anxiety result from an objective demand interpreted as threatening by an individual. Horn highlights that anxiety is viewed as feelings of nervousness and tension, which is linearly associated with levels of arousal.
Anxiety can be further sub-divided into somatic and cognitive anxieties. Somatic anxiety refers to the bodily symptoms of autonomic reactivity; butterflies, sweating, increased heart-rate and shaking.
Cognitive anxiety refers to the negative concerns about performance, lack of concentration and poor attention Horn, Levels of anxiety can affect athletes individually, there not a single optimal level of anxiety, the effects of anxiety on performance is largely attributable to whether the athlete perceives anxiety to be facilitating or debilitating Gill, Stress Stress can be described as both an environmental variable and an emotional response to a specific situation Horn, Much like anxiety, the effects of stress on performance is down to how the athlete perceives this stress.
Selye in Horn highlighted that not all stress is negative, eustress good stress and distress bad stress. Environmental stresses often deemed as distresses are somewhat unavoidable unpredictable, therefore the sports psychologist has very little control over their effects on performance.
To improve these psychological skills, the athlete will complete sessions using goal setting, imagery and relaxation. The program will follow an educational approach as advised by Gill and Horn The program consists of three main phases: Educational Phase - developing the understanding and importance of PST and how it can affect performance.
Practice Phase - devote time and effort to PST and complete training in both competition and practice Horn, These findings support the use of PST programs to optimise performance within gymnastics.
Goal Setting Sessions The first mental skill to be used within the program is goal setting.Investment Banking Modelling Test. Investment banks will often require top-notch Excel modelling skills when they hire analysts or associates from other investment banks or from other professionals in the finance sector (i.e.
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