Dropped out from Reed College. Co-founded Apple, and was later forced out of the company.
History of Computers This chapter is a brief summary of the history of Computers. The chapter highlights some of the advances to look for in the documentaries. In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things: The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data: Vacuum Tubes s - one bit on the size of a thumb; Transistors s and s - one bit on the size of a fingernail; Integrated Circuits s and 70s - thousands of bits on the size of a hand Silicon computer chips s and on - millions of bits on the size of a finger nail.
The progression of the ease of use of computers: Almost impossible to use except by very patient geniuses s ; Programmable by highly trained people only s and s ; Useable by just about anyone s and on. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania.
ENIAC was also the first machine to use more than 2, vacuum tubes, using nearly 18, vacuum tubes. Storage of all those vacuum tubes and the machinery required to keep the cool took up over square meters square feet of floor space. Nonetheless, it had punched-card input and output and arithmetically had 1 multiplier, 1 divider-square rooter, and 20 adders employing decimal "ring counters," which served as adders and also as quick-access 0.
The executable instructions composing a program were embodied in the separate units of ENIAC, which were plugged together to form a route through the machine for the flow of computations.
These connections had to be redone for each different problem, together with presetting function tables and switches. This "wire-your-own" instruction technique was inconvenient, and only with some license could ENIAC be considered programmable; it was, however, efficient in handling the particular programs for which it had been designed.
ENIAC is generally acknowledged to be the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer EDC and was productively used from to A controversy developed inhowever, over the patentability of ENIAC's basic digital concepts, the claim being made that another U.
Atanasoff, had already used the same ideas in a simpler vacuum-tube device he built in the s while at Iowa State College. Inthe court found in favor of the company using Atanasoff claim and Atanasoff received the acclaim he rightly deserved. Progression of Hardware In the 's two devices would be invented that would improve the computer field and set in motion the beginning of the computer revolution.
The first of these two devices was the transistor. Invented in by William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain of Bell Labs, the transistor was fated to oust the days of vacuum tubes in computers, radios, and other electronics.
Vaccum Tubes The vacuum tube, used up to this time in almost all the computers and calculating machines, had been invented by American physicist Lee De Forest in The vacuum tube, which is about the size of a human thumb, worked by using large amounts of electricity to heat a filament inside the tube until it was cherry red.
One result of heating this filament up was the release of electrons into the tube, which could be controlled by other elements within the tube. De Forest's original device was a triode, which could control the flow of electrons to a positively charged plate inside the tube.
A zero could then be represented by the absence of an electron current to the plate; the presence of a small but detectable current to the plate represented a one.
Transistors Vacuum tubes were highly inefficient, required a great deal of space, and needed to be replaced often.iTunes is the world's easiest way to organize and add to your digital media collection. We are unable to find iTunes on your computer.
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If you bought a new Apple computer any time between and , you'll have taken home a PowerPC-based device, the genesis of which we explored above. They thought the Apple I was a great thing, but they had plenty going themselves.” Like Hewlett-Packard before it, Atari wanted no part of Wozniak’s creation.
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Sci-Tech Steve Jobs and NeXT: Genesis of the new Apple. The old cliche applies to Steve Jobs and NeXT Computer. Out of failure comes success.